Matejko is Poland's greatest historical painter. Among his best-known panoramic compositions are Skarga's Sermon, Rejtan, The Union of Lublin, Batory at Pskov, The Battle of Grunwald, The Prussian Homage and Jan Sobieski at Vienna. He also painted smaller historical genre scenes and portraits of well-known Kraków personages, as well as more intimate and psychologically penetrating character studies, such as the splendid Self-Portrait of 1892.
Matejko took great pains with historical accuracy, and he collected period artifacts in his studio. In addition to his major works, many sketchbooks have survived that attest to his skilled hand, solid craftsmanship and attentiveness to detail. Many of his drawings were published in albums - Polish Costumes and Portraits of Polish Kings, for example.